Wednesday, 3 April 2013

Freedom of expression and the right to information in Latin America

By Carlos Fortin

A debate is raging in Latin America about government interference with freedom of the press. It was triggered by a proposal put forward in January by the so-called ALBA Group of countries – basically Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Venezuela - to downgrade the activities of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Organization of American States (OAS). The proposal was opposed by other governments and a number of NGOs. Prominent among the latter was the Inter American Press Association (IAPA), a business association that includes all major newspaper chains in the Western Hemisphere. IAPA has also consistently denounced the absence of freedom of the press in Cuba as well as de facto government pressures on the media  -in particular the discriminatory use of public advertising – in countries such as Argentina, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. The ALBA proposal was defeated at a special meeting of the OAS on 22 March.

So far, one would say, so good. However, IAPA has also recently been involved in a considerably more questionable effort at supporting opposition to proposals from some Latin American governments to set legal limits to the concentration of ownership in the media. Specifically, the Argentine government introduced legislation in 2009 limiting the number of licences for radio and television broadcasting that could be held by a single individual or company; it is currently involved in a judicial controversy with the main newspaper chain, Clarin, which is challenging the constitutionality of the law before the Argentine Supreme Court. The Ecuadorian and Honduran governments are proposing similar legislation.

IAPA's reaction in effect has been to endorse the view that the proposed measures are contrary to freedom of expression. In the case of Argentina, the Resolution adopted at the IAPA Midyear Meeting in early March 2013 cites approvingly Clarin's contention that the media law ‘violates constitutional rights, among them the freedom of expression, equality before the law, the right to property, and the ex-post-facto principle, among other fundamental guarantees’.

The problem with this stance is that it ignores the collective dimension of freedom of expression. This notion goes back to John Stuart Mill who in his Essay on Liberty (1859) had already recognised that freedom of expression should not only be understood as an individual right but as part of a social mechanism that allows political decisions to be balanced and right.1 The view has been adopted by modern democratic theory under the concept of the right to information: the right of society to have a pluralist media system whereby all viewpoints and ideas can be known and compared.2  Concentration of the ownership of the media conspires against pluralism, a point that was central to the debate in the UK concerning the 2010-2011 failed attempt by News Corporation and its owner Rupert Murdoch to gain full control of Sky TV.3

On the strength of that rationale, most advanced Western democracies have special regimes limiting concentration in the media that go beyond the general anti-monopoly regulations. It is odd to suggest that governments in Latin America that are trying to introduce such regimes are somehow departing from the route to democratic development. And this, of course, is not to condone other shortcomings those governments may have in their approach to the media, such as discriminatory treatment of the opposition press.

________________
1. John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and Other Essays, Digiread.com Publishing, 2010, p. 33.
2. I elaborated on this in a paper published in 2011: ‘Derecho a la información y propiedad de los medios de comunicación: teoría, normativa comparada, problemática chilena’, Revista de Derecho Público, Santiago, Universidad de Chile, No. 75, second semester, 2011, pp. 171-241.
3.‘British media join forces against Murdoch takeover of BskyB’, The Guardian, 11 October 2010.

24 comments :

Zheng junxai5 said...

zhengjx20160803
cheap rolex watches
fit flops
coach outlet
oakley sunglasses
cheap toms shoes
louis vuitton purses
louboutin sale clearance
christian louboutin sale
true religion outlet
louboutin femme
cheap basketball shoes
louis vuitton bags
polo shirts
rolex watches outlet
oakley outlet
mont blanc pen
michael kors outlet
oakley sunglasses wholesale
michael kors handbags
kd 7 shoes
michael kors outlet
adidas nmd
coach factory outlet online
concords 11
longchamp outlet
louis vuitton outlet
rolex watches for sale
michael kors handbags
coach outlet store online
coach outlet online
coach factory outlet online
michael kors outlet
cheap jerseys
mont blanc pens outlet
vans sneakers
air jordan 4
basketball shoes
lebron 13
cheap rolex watches
lebron 13 shoes

Pengobatan Ampuh Atasi Kencing Batu said...

Thank you for sharing the information, a very interesting article

Pengobatan Tumor Rahang Sampai ke Akar
Cara Mengobati Asam Urat Ampuh
Pengobatan Herbal Batu Ginjal
Pengobatan Asma Ampuh
Pengobatan Atasi Keputihan Yang Bau Dan Gatal
Cara Mengobati Ginjal Bocor

Obat Sembuhkan Penyakit Muntaber said...

The article is very interesting in the read, hopefully useful information for the crowd

Pengobatan Cedera Saraf Tulang Belakang
Obat Untuk Sembuhkan Infeksi Lambung
Pengobatan Untuk Mengatasi Radang Panggul
Pengobatan Untuk Menyembuhkan Kaki Bengkak
Pengobatan Untuk Menyembuhkan Abses Payudara

kkk said...

adidas superstar
michael kors handbags
coach outlet store online clearances
pandora bijoux
fit flops
michael kors canada
christian louboutin outlet
cheap jordans
adidas shoes
polo ralph lauren outlet

kkk said...

adidas superstar
michael kors handbags
coach outlet store online clearances
pandora bijoux
fit flops
michael kors canada
christian louboutin outlet
cheap jordans
adidas shoes
polo ralph lauren outlet
lanhaichao

Hermawan Alfaqih said...

I was really amazed by you. The contents of the article is very original. thanks for the work, may be a inpirasi for everything obat lambung bocor Obat Fistula Ani

Pengobatan Anemia Atau Kurang Darah said...

The information is very spectacular. Thank you for sharing the information :)

Pengobatan Untuk Mengangkat Tumor Tanpa Operasi
Pengobatan Bisul Yang Ampuh
Pengobatan Mata Katarak
Cara Herbal Mengobati Radang Amandel
Pengobatan Paling Efektif Jantung Lemah
Penanganan Tepat Penyakit Liver

liuchunkai said...

ray ban wayfarer
cheap oakley sunglasses
mulberry bags
coach outlet clearance
coach handbags
nike roshe run
hermes outlet
tory burch outlet online
longchamp bags
true religion outlet
20170901lck

Pengobatan Untuk Infeksi Pencernaan said...

Very Good Article ;)

Cara Sembuhkan Sakit Ginjal Pria
Obat Kulit Herpes
Tips Pengobatan Demam Tifoid
Pengobatan Untuk Sinusitis Kronis
Tips Untuk Penderita Parkinson
Menurunkan Kolesterol Jahat Secara Alami

Obat Anak Panas Dalam said...

Thank you for sharing the information, the article is very interesting to read and may be useful for everything

Obat Gangguan Fungsi Pernapasan
Obat Penyakit Rematik Tradisional
Pengobatan Penyakit Gula Darah
Cara Menyembuhkan Psoriasis
Obat Penurun Serum Kolesterol
Obat Nyeri Pinggang Belakang

Obat Untuk Panas Di Lambung said...

The article was very interesting to read, thank you for sharing the information

Obat Keropos Tulang Tradisional
Obat Telinga Berdenging
Obat Luka Pada Dinding Lambung
Cara Menghentikan Pertumbuhan Tumor
Cara Sembuhkan Bengkak Di Leher
Cara Sembuhkan Pendarahan Ginjal

Nuy Nurhasanah said...

given article is very helpful and very useful for my admin, and pardon me permission to share articles here hopefully helped Cara menjadi agen QnC Jelly Gamat

Nur Hasanah said...

very useful article, thank you very much and pardon me permission to share the article here admin :

Obat flu menahun herbal
Cara menyembuhkan
Cara menyembuhkan darah tinggi

Heri Wijaya said...

article was very nice and helpful at all for me, hopefully in the future more and more information that already and pardon me permission to share articles herein may be useful for all of you in particular who are looking for Cara menyembuhkan mastitis

Heri Wijaya said...

given article is very helpful and very useful for my admin, and pardon me permission to share articles here hopefully helped :

Cara mengecilkan benjolan dekat mata
Cara mengatasi anyang anyangan

Rebecca Alexandra said...

thank you very useful information admin, and pardon me permission to share articles here may help Obat susah kencing

Unknown said...

thank you very useful information admin, and pardon me permission to share articles here may help Cara mengatasi patah tulang

Neng Nuy said...

thank you very useful information admin, and pardon me permission to share articles here may help

Obat leukosit tinggi
Obat hipertensi herbal
Cara mengatasi infeksi saluran kencing

Neng Nuy said...

thank you very useful information admin, and pardon me permission to share articles here may help :

Cara menyembuhkan miom
Cara menyembuhkan rematik
Cara menyembuhkan penyakit kuning

Anonymous said...

a given article is very interesting and very useful for me, thank you very much admin and pardon me permission to share the article here :

Obat hepatitis b
Suplemen flek hitam
Pengobatan alternatif kista

Anonymous said...

Thank you so much admin is already providing the information to us and here we are sorry permission to share articles about the disease may be useful to you in particular are looking for Obat ginjal bocor

Anonymous said...

a given article is very interesting and useful for me and sorry selali me permission to share articles herein may be useful and help you in particular are looking for :

Cara menyembuhkan kanker payudara
Cara mengatasi asam lambung naik
Obat muntaber herbal

Obat Untuk Mengatasi ISPA (Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Akut) said...

Thank you for sharing the information

Inovasi Terbaru Walatra Gamat Emas
Obat Untuk Menyembuhkan Fraktur/Patah Tulang
Pengobatan Untuk Sembuhkan Abses Kulit
Cara Mengobati Susah Buang Air Kecil (Susah Kencing)
Obat Untuk Menyembuhkan Luka Lambung
Cara Mengobati TBC Tulang

sarah saad said...



شركة المتحدة
دليل شركات نقل العفش
شركة نقل اثاث بالمدينة المنورة